Tuberculosis:


Basic Profile:
Myctobacterium Tuberculosis
Myctobacterium Tuberculosis

  • Scientific Name: Tubercies Bacillius
  • Common name: Tuberculosis or TB
  • Caused mainly by Myctobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)
  • Infects the lungs and could spread out to other parts of the body and eventually wasting the body
  • The disease kills more than 50% of the victims





Discovery:


Tuberculosis has been estimated to appear on Earth for about 15,000 to 20,000 years ago. It first appeared in Greek Litearture by Hippocrates in around 460 BC and was identified as the most common reason of illness at the time and it was very deadly at the time, people who contracted it almost had no hope but to wait for death. 500 years later, a Greek physician called Galen described Tuberculosis as "ulceration of the lungs, thorax or throat, accompanied by a cough, fever, and consumption of the body by pus."

In the 1700's, there was a tuberculosis epidemic which was known as the Great White Plague at the time, it lasted about a century until about in the 1800's in Europe. The cause of this is because of a new form of Tuberculosis which affected the lungs at the time of industrialization in Europe during the 1700's to the 1800's and the disease was aided with dirty and unhygenic living conditions, where the disease has been killing millions each year, causing one in four people dying of Tuberculosis in London and New York.

In 1865, a French military doctor called Jean - Antoine Villemin made an assumption that the disease could be passed from humans to cattles and cattles to rabbits. In 1882, a Russian doctor called Robert Koch invented a staining techinque that allows
us nowdays to see the Tuberculosis mytobacteria.



What causes it?
Tuberculosis is a disease that is caused by a bacteria called Myctobacterium Tuberculosis, where it primarily affects the lungs and also affects other organs such as the brain, the kidneys, the spine, etc. The disease could be transmitted in a variety of ways. One of the most common ways of transmitting the disease is through sneezes, coughes and spits. One single sneeze could release about 40,000 droplets and each drop may help transmit the disease, but the chance of getting an infectous dose is very low and getting contact of less than 10 of the bacteria could lead to an infection of tuberculosis. It could also be transmitted through prolonged and frequent contact and there is an a particularly high risk of getting infected.


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Transmission of Tuberculosis through sneezes


Tuberculosis could be contaminiated in food and milk especially and we could be infected by eating the food, especially milk. Mycobacterium Bovis is a bacteria which causes Tuberculosis in cattles and another bacteria which causes Tuberculosis in humans, the bacteria could get through the cattle's body, contaminating the milk eventually if someone drinks it, the bacteria is strong enough to travel with blood to the lungs and slowly reproduce which will cause TB.


Mycobacterium Bovis
Mycobacterium Bovis

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Symptoms:

In the early stages of Tuberculosis, there are no symptoms due to the amount of mycobacteria inside the lungs is very little and can't do much to the lungs at the time and end up with nothing happening.
Early symptoms of Tuberculosis is like a normal flu, fever, sweating in day and night, flu-like symptoms, weight loss for no reason, appetite loss, feel very weak and most seriously fatigue. Symptoms are due to because the start of reproduction of Tuberculosis in the lungs and the immune system start to take action on the bacteria.

Late symptoms of Tuberculosis is pleurisy, where it is a pain in the chest during deep breathing or coughing because of the pleural lining or the lining of the lungs which rub against each other which makes a pain in the chest. A bad cough or a persistent cough that lasts longer than 2 weeks would also be suspected. Later stages of Tuberculosis involves coughing blood or sputum, where sputum is a matter that is expelled in the respiratory system. Shortness of breath could happen very often and could lead to fatigue. The colour of urine could vary, some will have cloudy urine and some could have reddish urine due to Tuberculosis could affect the kidneys and destroy the organs and tissues inside where blood could have been expelled during this time.



How long does the disease last, is it deadly?
Tuberculosis is a deadly disease where the immune system can't fight against the reproducing Mycobacterium inside the lungs, the disease could last to the second when your heart stops beating if it is not treated since the bacteria keeps reproducing inside your lungs non-stop where the immune system can't do anything to it because there's too much of the bacteria which the immune system can't handle. For people who got weak immune systems, Tuberculosis could be a deadly disease. Instead, about half of the AIDS patients die because of Tuberculosis. If the disease is controlled or is treated by antibiotics or other antituberculosis - drugs, the mycobacterium could stay in your lungs for about 6 months to 1 year and the bacteria will be totally demolished in the lungs by the antibiotics and the immune system.



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Mycobacterium Tuberculosis attacking Lung


Treatment:

Treatment for Tuberculosis could range from one person to another depending on what mycobacterium infected your lungs, since different types of mycobacteria could resist to different kinds of antibiotics and in average, in two to four weeks, victims will start to feel better with the antibiotics but the treatment needs to be continued to six months to completely cure or destroy the bacteria inside the lungs.

Treatment for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis:
Duration: 6 months
Isoniazid
Isoniazid
Antibiotics:
- Isoniazid
- Rifampcin
- Pyrazinamide - Ethambutolz




Treatment for Mycobacterium Bovis:
Pyrazinamide
Pyrazinamide

Duration: 9 months

Antibiotics:

- Isoniazid
- Rifampcin

Resistance:

- Pyrazinamide
Treatment for Mycobacterium Avium Complex (Brought by birds):
Duration: 6 months or more
Mycobacterium Avium Complex
Mycobacterium Avium Complex

Antibiotics:

- Azithromycin

Azithromycin
Azithromycin


By Yin Yu Lam 9.4